systemd is a suite of basic building blocks for a Linux system. It provides a system and service manager that runs as Process ID 1 and starts the rest of the system.

To manage the services run the following commands:

  • systemctl or systemctl list-units : This command lists the running units.
  • systemctl --failed : This command lists failed units.
  • systemctl list-unit-files : This command lists all the installed unit files. The unit files are usually present in /usr/lib/systemd/system/ and /etc/systemd/system/.
  • systemctl status pid : This command displays the cgroup slice, memory and parent for a PID.
  • systemctl start unit : This command starts a unit immediately.
  • systemctl stop unit : This command stops a unit.
  • systemctl restart unit : This command restarts a unit.
  • systemctl reload unit : This command asks a unit to reload its configuration.
  • systemctl status unit : This command displays the status of a unit.
  • systemctl enable unit : This command enables a unit to run on startup.
  • systemctl enable --now unit : This command enables a unit to run on startup and start immediately.
  • systemctl disable unit : This command disables a unit and removes it from the startup program.
  • systemctl mask unit : This command masks a unit to make it impossible to start.
  • systemctl unmask unit : This command unmasks a unit.

To get an overview of the system boot-up time, run the following command:


To view a list of all running units, sorted by the time they took to initialize (highest time on top), run the following command:

systemd-analyze blame

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